Costa Rica is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world, having 4% of all the known species of plants and animals in only 0.04% the earth's surface. For instance, there are roughly 9,000 known species of vascular plants in the country and there are certain areas of great floral richness. Perhaps Monteverde is one of the richest regions of plants where there are 3,021 known species including a total of 755 species of trees.
The area of study for the purpose of describing flora and fauna extends from the peaks and crests of the continental divide in Monteverde (1,850 MASL) to 700 MASL of the Pacific and Caribbean gradients. It Includes the Monteverde Biological Reserve, Santa Elena and The Children's Eternal Rainforest (including Bajo del Tigre), part of Arenal Volcano National Park, and private lands in the buffer zones that surround the Monteverde Biological Reserve complex. Nearly all the area of study is within the premontane and low montane altitudinal levels.